There are few better experiences than spotting African safari animals on a game drive. Here are 27 interesting African animals to look out for including tips for where to go and how to see them.
Spotting African safari animals is a remarkable experience.
From the early starts with the sun only just punctuating the horizon, to the excitement of hearing the sound of rustling leaves. Spotting a lone lion standing proud surveying his territory or seeing nothing for hours but busy scrub and flat plains.
An African safari is an extraordinary experience and it’s a privilege to see these amazing animals in the wild.
We’ve spent a lot of time on safari – early mornings attentively seeking African animals in some of the most amazing safari parks in the world. This is our list of the best safari animals to see, how to increase your chances of seeing them, plus some amazing images to help fuel your safari wanderlust.
Some of these safari animals are facing threats, but fortunately, government-run game reserves are working hard to protect them; partnering with the community to reduce the human-wildlife conflict.
Here is our list of the best safari animals and how to get the best viewings.
Booking your trip via the links on this page (or on our book page) will earn us a small commission, at no extra cost to you. Thanks for your support – Paul & Mark.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – THE BIG 5
1 – LION
Enjoying the enviable position at the top of the food chain with no predators, the lion rules the wide-open African plains. The largest and grandest of all cats, they live in small prides led by a single male. Without fear of other animals and no need to hide, they are the easiest cat to see on a game drive. Yet, they are still one of the most exciting African animals to spot.
Lions hunt at night and largely sleep during the day, sheltering from the sun under trees or thick vegetation. The best chance to see them is at dawn when they may still be hunting, or at dusk as they begin to rise for the evening.
BEST PLACES TO SEE LIONS
Shrinking habitats have forced lions into closer contact with humans causing them to attack livestock. As this puts them at risk of retaliatory hunting, lions are listed as vulnerable on the IUCN conservation list and most are now in the large game reserves.
Lions are seen throughout Africa; however, the best locations are in eastern Africa. Serengeti and Masai Mara are ideal big cat country; Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania has one of the highest densities of lion in the world, and Okavango is said to have some of the biggest.
2 – LEOPARD
Leopards are notoriously difficult to spot. Shy and solitary, they spend most of the day in caves or high up in trees. Hunting is at night often amongst shrubby rocky ground. Fortunately, they can survive in a wider array of environments than other African wildlife and, although numbers are declining, they can still be found living outside parks on local farmland.
Leopard is one animal that is harder to see on a self-drive safari. To increase your chances, take an organised drive with a guide who knows the area well and is in radio contact with other guides, creating a wider coverage area.
BEST PLACES TO SEE LEOPARDS
With conservation efforts boosting the leopard population, the wide-open plains of Masai Mara and South Luangwa in Zambia are great destinations. One of the best locations to spot leopards is in Sabi Sands in South Africa. As a private reserve that doesn’t allow self-drive, the rangers can keep a more protective eye on young leopards.
3 – AFRICAN ELEPHANT
Elephants are listed as vulnerable on IUCN red list, but fortunately, their immense size means if they are nearby, you are unlikely to miss them. Incredibly destructive African animals, elephants rip foliage to pieces with their powerful trunks leaving a trail of devastation – another sign that elephants are nearby.
Most elephants live in herds consisting of 5 to 100 animals, and spotting a large herd is one of the most exciting experiences on an African safari. If you are self-driving on safari and you come across a lone bull, keep your distance as they can be moody and unpredictable. It is easiest to see them in the dry season, during the day, when they will gather around waterholes to drink
BEST PLACES TO SEE ELEPHANTS
Chobe National Park in Botswana has the largest elephant population in Africa, making it almost guaranteed that you’ll get excellent sightings of them playing by the water. Mana Pools National Park in Zimbabwe also has a large population, and the scenic park is excellent for photography.
4 – WHITE RHINO + BLACK RHINO
After decades of rampant poaching, there are now only 2 northern white rhinos left in the world, both of which are female. Between 1960 and 1995, black rhino numbers dropped by 98%, however, thanks to incredible conservation efforts, their numbers have increased to around 5,600. Despite this improvement, they remain critically endangered on the IUCN red list.
The real conservation success story has been in the recovery of southern white rhinos. Previously thought to be extinct, a population of 100 were discovered in KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa at the end of the 19th century. There are now thought to be around 20,000 living in protected areas and private game reserves throughout the country.
BEST PLACES TO SEE RHINO
Namibia has done as much as any country to try to preserve the black rhino, yet they are still rare. To see them stay in a well-run eco-tourism property such as Grootberg Lodge, which offers day drives with ex-poaches now employed as guides. Going on a tour with an ex-poacher in the heart of rhino territory is an essential African wild animal experience.
White rhino are much more common but still difficult to spot in many places. South Africa, with less arid game reserves, has better conditions for rhino. Kruger and Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Reserves are excellent.
READ NEXT / BEST PLACES TO VISIT IN SOUTH AFRICA
5 – AFRICAN BUFFALO
The last of the big 5 African animals (the others being leopard, lion, elephant, rhino), the buffalo, are the only wild cattle species in Africa. They’re imposing African animals who congregate to ensure protection from predators. They also drink regularly so, they’re often easy to spot in large groups around waterholes.
Buffalo herds move constantly throughout the day in search of fresh grazing and water, so look for locations between waterholes for the best sightings. Lions often trail buffalos so keep your eyes peeled for action.
BEST PLACES TO SEE BUFFALO
Buffalo are listed as near threatened on the IUCN Conservation list, but it’s still possible to get great sightings of this incredible wild African animal. Kavati National Park in western Tanzania is one of the best destinations for an African Safari, famous for huge herds of buffalo who often get into scraps with predatory lions. However, while it may not have such large congregations, Kruger National Park has very good buffalo sightings in a more accessible park.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – OTHER CATS & DOGS
6 – CHEETAH
The sleekest and fastest land animal on earth, the cheetah can be tricky to spot due to its relatively small population. But they hunt during the day to avoid larger predators and chase their game at high speeds across open grasslands. This means that if you do spot a cheetah, it could possibly be part of an exciting chase with uninterrupted views.
Early and mid-morning safari drives provide the best opportunities to spot the cheetah in action. Head to the wide-open plains where the lack of vegetation means they can utilise their speed most effectively.
BEST PLACES TO SEE CHEETAH
The best places to see cheetah are in the wide-open grasslands of Masai Mara in Kenya, and Serengeti in Tanzania. Namibia contains about 1/3 of all African Cheetahs; for an almost guaranteed sighting, Okonjima rehabilitates orphaned cheetahs providing great access to these incredible African animals.
7 – HYENA
Occupying a variety of habitats including dry bushland, open plains and rocky country, hyenas will be found anywhere there is abundant wildlife for food. However, they’re not picky eaters, in fact, they will feast on just about anything. There is a common misconception that hyenas are primarily scavengers, but this reputation is unjustified – around 70% of their diet is made up of their own kill.
When they are hunting or scavenging, hyenas will often communicate via their haunting laugh. During the day, they will chill out beside their den or by water. The best time is early morning when they are hunting or looking to steal someone else’s kill from the night before.
BEST PLACES TO SEE HYENA
Hyenas are present in virtually all national parks and reserves but are most prolific where African wildlife provide them with carcases to scavenge. Masai Mara, Serengeti, Okavango, Luangwa Valleys and Greater Kruger are all excellent.
8 – JACKAL
With a shrewd appearance somewhere between a fox and a German Shepherd, jackals are an under-appreciated safari animal. They’re loyal creatures who have one mate for life and build strong alliances to ensure their ongoing survival. Being omnivores, they feed on foliage when it’s around, but they also hunt small prey using stealthy coordination with their mates. However, their favoured technique for eating is to scavenge off larger prey, often at much personal risk from bigger predators. As skilled and tactical scavengers, they’ll often be nearby if there is a kill on the side of the road.
BEST PLACES TO SEE JACKAL
Black-backed jackals are most prevalent in the southern African countries of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. They are not only in the major game reserves but can also be found scavenging in wild and desolate places such as the Skeleton Coast.
9 – AFRICAN WILD DOG
Apart from the large Micky Mouse type ears, wild dogs have a menacing look. But their greatest assets are stamina and teamwork. They hunt in packs, working cooperatively to drive their prey to exhaustion by chasing them until they can no longer run.
Wild dogs are rare and often difficult to find, so a sighting is a special occurrence. They like bush and open grasslands and strike with no notice, so often the first hint you’ll have is the panicking flight of prey. Even if you get a glimpse it may be fleeting as they don’t stand still for long.
BEST PLACES TO SEE WILD DOG
Given the rareness of wild dogs, the best opportunity to see them is on a private game reserve where conservation efforts bolster their numbers. South Luangwa in Zambia has had some success in increasing numbers. Linyanti Reserve in Botswana, Mana Pools in Zimbabwe and Madikwe in South Africa are other good options. But you’ll also need a dose of good luck.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – HERBIVORES
10 – COMMON HIPPO
Bad-tempered and territorial, hippos are one of the most dangerous animals in Africa. They’re known to be extremely defensive, especially with young around. During the day the hippos wallow in muddy pools or shallow estuaries to protect their easily burnt skin. But at night they head onto land to feed on the grasses, before returning home at dawn.
It’s possible to spot hippos throughout the day in river pools but most likely all you’ll see is the top of their heads. For a better view, a guided night safari provides the possibility of seeing them out of the water and getting a much better view of this incredible safari animal.
BEST PLACES TO SEE HIPPO
Serengeti National Park in Tanzania is one of the best places to see hippos. There are several waterholes with excellent viewing platforms. Another option is the river estuary in iSimangaliso Wetland Park, near St Lucia, which has the largest hippo population in South Africa.
11 – GIRAFFE
Despite declining populations over previous decades, giraffe numbers in southern Africa are now increasing. This welcome resurgence is providing travellers with countless opportunities to witness the languid manner and puzzled expressions of these gracious, yet awkward African animals.
Giraffes tend to stick out from the environment, so they’re not difficult to spot. Try and capture them near a waterhole; their awkward stance as they take a drink is quite a sight.
WHERE TO SEE GIRAFFE
Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda has done an excellent job in increasing the giraffe population and saving specific species from extinction. It remains one of the best places to see these most elegant of African animals. Northern Selous in Kenya is another excellent option.
12 – ZEBRA
With their unique black and white striped coat, zebras are one of the most recognisable African animals. Their colouring contrasts beautifully with their environment making them a photogenic subject for wildlife photography.
Zebras travel regularly, grazing on whatever they can find. They also live in large groups called harems, so it’s not difficult to spot them on safari. Being prevalent across many of the safari parks in Africa, if there is water and grass around, there’s a good chance you’ll find a zebra.
BEST PLACES TO SEE ZEBRA
The most dramatic place to see zebra is on the great migration, where vast herds of zebra and antelope follow the rains between Masai Mara in Kenya and Serengeti in Tanzania. For a nail-biting experience, watch them make the dangerous cross of the Mara River as crocodiles lurk.
13 – WARTHOG
The name warthog comes from the two large warts on the side of their face, which unfairly, are not warts at all, but mounds of bone and cartridge. They’re not the most graceful of all African safari animals but there is something endearing about them. It might be the way they hobble around on their knees all day grazing for food.
Because they will eat anything, they will sometimes be at risk of culling after feasting on rice or beans in agricultural areas. Many governments in Africa are developing wildlife corridors that allow warthogs to move from one protected area to the next without being tempted by risky agricultural crops.
BEST PLACES TO SEE WARTHOG
Warthogs are common across the continent but are most abundant in southern and eastern Africa. You don’t even need to be in a reserve, they are commonly found on the side of the road, munching on grass, berries and insects.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – ANTELOPE
14 – KUDU
With their distinctive corkscrew horn, Kudu are impressive African animals to spot on safari. One of the largest antelope species, they are elegant with white loops wrapped around coats ranging from light brown through to deep chocolate.
Kudu live in herds but are often found roaming around by themselves. Relying on bush to hide from predators, they are frequently spotted lurking amongst the scrub. They’ll run away rather than fight, so if you see one in the wild, it’s best to stay as quiet as possible.
BEST PLACES TO SEE KUDU
Kudu are found throughout much of Africa especially in areas of mixed woodlands or abandoned fields. They have particularly large numbers in Tsavo National Park in Kenya, and Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.
15 – NYALA
Nyala are slightly smaller than Kudu but possess similarly handsome characteristics. The coat of the female remains light brown while the male gradually becomes darker, eventually turning a slate grey in adulthood. With pale legs and white strips on their sides, Nyala are striking African animals.
Being shy, they are rarely seen wandering into open fields or grasslands. However, their large numbers make them relatively easy to spot, especially when they are active in the early morning.
BEST PLACES TO SEE NYALA
Native to southern Africa, Nyala are widespread in areas with dense woodlands. Some of the best places to see them are in KwaZulu-Natal and Ndumo Game Reserve in South Africa.
16 – WILDEBEEST
The regal wildebeest, with their curious eyes and box-like head, often appear to pose for photographs. They have a large head that looks like a cow while their back tapers off to slender spindly legs.
They are best seen on the great migration where around 2 million animals make a journey around the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in search of nutritious grass and water. The migration happens all year, however, viewing is best during the dry season between June and September.
BEST PLACES TO SEE WILDEBEEST
Wildebeest prefer the grassy savanna of central, southern and eastern Africa. They are easy to spot throughout the great game reserves, however the best place to see them is on the migration in the Serengeti in Tanzania and Kenya.
17 – ORYX
Oryx is another very majestic looking antelope, with horns that point straight up and dark stylings on a light coat. They are often found in the most arid regions of Africa cutting graceful silhouettes against remote and desolate landscapes.
Best spotted wandering around in the middle of the day, they are social and calm animals that group in large herds of up to 40 members. Unfortunately, they are hunted for meat and their horns are considered good luck in many cultures.
BEST PLACES TO SEE ORYX
As they can live in desert conditions, one of the best places to see Oryx is in Etosha National Park in Namibia.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – PRIMATES
18 – BABOON
Baboons are opportunistic eaters who will gobble up anything that is remotely edible. Much of their day is spent foraging for food in large troops; highly complicated social structures which can have up to hundreds of members. The males dominate, followed by the females ranked by birth order.
These troops are a delicate balance of social diplomacy although it’s not always peaceful. Baboon’s don’t have a gripping tale like other monkeys, but they do have a powerful jaw and sharp canine teeth; playful banter can quickly become more ominous.
Baboons are very common in much of Africa and can usually be found on the side of the road and in picnic spots. They are chronic kleptomaniacs, so keep everything you don’t want to be stolen out of their reach.
BEST PLACES TO SEE BABOON
The Olive and Yellow Baboon can be found in central sub-Sahara Africa (Kenya and Tanzania), whereas the Chacma Baboon inhabits the southern African region. Baboons are relatively common in most parks except the more arid central regions.
19 – MONKEY
If you’ve ever had your lunch snatched from you by a monkey, you’ll see why they could be seen as a pest. As opportunistic eaters, they’ll steal food, raid crops, scamper through rubbish and take anything they think has a good chance of being digested.
This puts some monkeys in Africa at risk. In addition to being a pest, the vervet monkey is valuable for research and often ends up in traps.
There are hundreds of types of monkeys dotted across Africa, mainly in the jungles of the equatorial areas. But in the savannas of the game reserves, you will most likely come across the vervet or samango monkey. They are not difficult to spot, if you stop for a picnic, chances are they’ll come to you.
BEST PLACES TO SEE MONKEY
Vervet monkeys are spread across the game reserves of Africa, but the Sykes (or Samango) monkey is not so common. Their favoured habitat is the forested eastern game reserves of South Africa including Kosi Bay near the Mozambique border.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – BIRDS
20 – COMMON OSTRICH
When Ostriches don’t have their head in the sand, they are resourceful creatures that can forge a life in the most difficult of conditions. Mainly vegetarian they will also eat small insects in order to survive and if water is scarce they can rely on vegetation to hydrate. As a result, ostriches can be found in the most inhospitable of places.
In the 18th century, the ostrich was heavily hunted for their feathers and meat. If it were not for farming, experts believe that by today they would probably be extinct. As a result, their population is stable in the wild, both on game reserves and in the open. If you’re having trouble spotting them, keep an eye out for their elaborate mating rituals which include erotic dancing and loud boisterous hissing.
BEST PLACES TO SEE OSTRICH
Ostriches are best found in the drier and more arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. One of the most intriguing places to see them is in the barren desolation of Namibia’s Skeleton Coast. Catch them as silhouettes on a bleak horizon, and wonder where exactly they are scurrying off to.
21 – VULTURES
Vultures play a pivotal role in the ecosystem of game reserves, clearing up to 70% of animal carcases. With strong stomach acid, vultures can feed on carcases infected with anthrax, rabies and other deadly diseases, stopping them from getting into the water supply.
Sadly the demise in the number of vultures in Africa has been staggering. Vultures are poisoned by farmers to protect their livestock and by poaches who provide heads, talons and bones to the eastern medicine market where they are highly prized for their metaphysical powers. Between 65% and 70% have disappeared in the last 15 years.
Vultures are found throughout Africa in most types of habitat including wooded areas, arid deserts and mountainous regions. Although a clumsy flier, keep an eye to the skies, where groups congregate above a kill.
BEST PLACES TO SEE VULTURES
The dramatic drop in vulture numbers means they are now absent from much of the central and western parts of sub-Saharan Africa and only patchily distributed through much of the rest. Your best chances are in formally protected areas such as the Kruger National Park in South Africa, Etosha in Namibia and the Serengeti and Mara regions of Tanzania and Kenya.
22 – FLAMINGO
While the big 5 draw the most excitement from safari enthusiasts, masses of flamingos setting a lake alight with waves of bright pink are an incredible sight. Feasting on blue-green algae and shrimp, they are sociable birds who live in colonies of thousands.
Although they stand on one leg and look rather ungainly, they are excellent fliers. There are few more spectacular safari events than a massive swathe of flamingos taking to the air in the early morning sun.
BEST PLACES TO SEE FLAMINGO
The lesser flamingos are near threatened because almost all of them live in one place: Lake Natron in Tanzania, which has plans to build a salt mine that would impact their habitat. Greater flamingos are more widely spread but are best seen bathing in Lake Nakuru, Lake Bogoria, and Lake Elmenteita in Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. However, for a unique experience spot them feeding in waterholes amongst the dunes of the Namib desert.
23 – SECRETARY BIRD
Secretary birds hunt their prey on the ground, so while they can fly, you’ll mostly find them roaming the great grasslands and savanna of Africa. They have a very distinctive look with 20 black crest feathers sprayed around their white heads and long gangly legs with thick black thighs.
They generally hunt from early morning to late afternoon and eat anything from other young birds and rats to tortoises and snakes. It’s very rare to see secretary birds in groups as they spend most of their time hunting by themselves.
BEST PLACES TO SEE SECRETARY BIRD
Secretary birds can be found anywhere in Africa where there is long grass, shrubland or savanna. Kruger National Park is a good location as is Ritvlei Nature Reserve, both in South Africa.
24 – WEAVER BIRDS
Weaver birds are energetic yellow homebuilders. The males build elaborate nests with a downward-facing design to ensure female comfort and protection from predators. The female chooses the best design based on aesthetics and comfort. If his nest isn’t chosen, the male will destroy his hard work in a fit of jealous rage.
They’re very sociable birds, so you’ll often find them in communities, occupying the one tree with hundreds of nests attached to branches. Weaver birds prefer good material to work with, so they tend to stay around dry areas with stiff grasses.
BEST PLACES TO SEE WEAVER BIRDS
Weaver Birds are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa except in the forested areas of the southern tip. Kruger National Park is a great place to see these curious African animals.
AFRICAN ANIMALS – REPTILES
25 – CROCODILES
Crocodiles are dangerous and aggressive African animals who don’t live in any form of group but will tolerate each other enough to swim together while feeding and lazing around. The most common form of crocodile in Africa, the Nile Crocodile, is an apex predator, meaning they have no natural predators above them in the food chain.
Crocodiles generally attack anything that crosses their path and roughly 200 people die each year. So, it’s a good idea to spot them from a distance.
BEST PLACES TO SEE CROCODILES
Crocodiles are widespread throughout Africa in a variety of landscapes, providing there is year-round water. Murchison Falls in Uganda has the highest concentration of crocodiles in Africa. They have been reintroduced into Queen Elizabeth Park in Uganda to help with conservation efforts.
26 – TURTLES
Sea turtles are not commonly thought of when listing African animals, but these magnificent beasts come ashore every year. Weighing up to 700kg, it’s a hard slog dragging themselves across the beach to lay their eggs in the sand. A few months later turtle hatchlings will make the perilous journey across the beach back into the ocean but sadly, only 1% will make it to adulthood.
Due to human encroachment on their nesting sites, turtles are in severe decline. There are significant efforts underway to protect their habitats and encourage breeding. As a result, spotting turtles in Africa will generally be via an organised tour.
BEST PLACES TO SEE TURTLES
Private island lodges on the coast of Mozambique can provide turtle tours, while the Pemba islands of Tanzania are also good. In South Africa, St Lucia is one of the best places in the world to spot turtles.
27 – LEOPARD TORTOISE
As the name suggests, the Leopard Tortoise has marks on its high domed shell like a leopard. Reaching up to 40 centimetres in length and weighing up to 20 kilograms they are too lazy to make their own nests and use holes abandoned by other animals instead. Mainly herbivores they will however gnaw on bones to get the calcium needed for their own bone development.
Tortoises are found in a variety of environments including semi-arid deserts, grasslands, bushlands and savannas.
BEST PLACE TO SEE TORTOISES
Tortoises are widespread throughout Africa in the savannas from Sudan to the southern Cape. Kruger National Park, KwaZulu-Natal and St Lucia in South Africa are all great places to spot tortoises.
BEST TIME TO SPOT AFRICAN SAFARI ANIMALS
The best time to visit the national parks is at the end of the dry season when land is parched and the vegetation has largely died allowing clearer sightings through the bush. A lack of water also forces animals to congregate around the few remaining waterholes.
In the wet season, the land is green and vegetation thick. The animals spread out over the plains and disappear into the shrub making them more difficult to see. But the rains also bring baby mammals, a wider array of birdlife, fewer tourists and lower costs.
Although the parks differ, the rains generally come from November to April. As the land dries out in May and June the vegetation slowly recedes and by July and August, the game viewing is good, climaxing in September and October.
The Masai Mara peaks a bit earlier when the migration crosses the river (around late August) and South Africa, with its high prevalence of rhino, can be good almost any time of year.
More information is in our article: best time to visit South Africa.
MORE SAFARI READING
Being on safari is one of our favourite travel experiences and something we try and do as regularly as possible. Here is some more reading to help you plan your next adventure spotting African safari animals.
VISITING SOUTH AFRICA
OFF THE BEATEN TRACK
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